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Council of Basel–Ferrara–Florence (1431–1445)


The Seventeenth Ecumenical Council by Catholic reckoning, but not an Ecumenical Council in the view of the Orthodox and the Oriental Orthodox



Though from the first it must be pointed out that this very title and dating is highly problematic, as the first phase in all this, the Council of Basel, which had originally been convoked by Pope Martin V (r. 11 November 1417 to 20 February 1431 †) shortly before his long papacy ended with his death on that 20th of February, was from its inception at odds with the successor of Pope Martin V, Pope Eugene IV.

An effort to turn a very long story into the kind of short story which is readable in one sitting will follow when writing such becomes possible. For now, perhaps it is appropriate to remind the reader of the old adage among lawyers to the effect that bad facts so often make for bad law. In this same connection consider the circumstances more than four hundred years after Basel–Ferrara–Florence, the circumstances confronting the Papacy of Pope Pius IX during the Italian Risorgimento and the final loss of the popes' temporal kingdom, the Papal States, and that other most major obstacle to the reunification of the Orthodox-Catholic Church which emerged from Pius IX's First Vatican Council, his Dogmatic Constitution on the Church, Pastor Aeternus of 18 July 1870.




The subject depicted by Benozzo Gozzoli being the Journey of the Magi to Bethlehem and the Three Magi
are actually used to depict leading Florentines and important participants in the Council of Florence in 1439
... here a young Lorenzo il Magnifico de' Medici (1449-1492), proceeding on horseback
his father, Piero di Cosimo de' Medici (1416-1469)
and his grandfather, Còsimo di Giovanni degli Mèdici (1389-1464) ...














... John VIII Palaiologos (1392-1448)
reigned as penultimate Byzantine Emperor (1425 - 31 October 1448).
He was succeeded by his brother, Constantine XI Palaiologos,
who reigned until his on 29 May 1453 death during the Turkish seige of
Constantinople when Constantinople and with her the Eastern Roman Empire
fell to the invading Muslim Turks, 977 years after the fall in 476 of the Western
Roman Empire with its capital in Rome ...



... Joseph II (1360–1439) Patriarch of Constantinople (1416 - 10 June 1439)



















La Cappella dei Magi di Palazzo Medici Riccardi, Firenze-Florence


painted 1459-1461 by Benozzo Gozzoli










Palazzo Medici Riccardi, Firenze-Florence